Kia Niro: Hybrid Control System / High voltage battery handling guide

Kia Niro 2017 (DE HEV) Service Manual / Hybrid Control System / High voltage battery handling guide

High voltage battery system inspection guide
  

Be sure to read and follow the “General Safety Information and Caution” before doing any work related with the high voltage system. Failure to follow the safety instructions may result in serious electrical injuries.

1.

Carry out a visual inspection to determine whether the vehicle requires general repair or accident repair.

2.

For the general repair, perform the repair based on the repair process for that DTC code.

3.

For the car accident repair, determine the accident type before repair.

1) Electrical Accidents

Over-charge/discharge: Displays a battery over voltage (P1B71) code /low voltage (P1B70) code (Refer to the DTC diagnosis guide).

Short: Displays a high voltage short (P1B77, P1B25) codes (Refer to the DTC diagnosis guide).

2) Fire

Classification
Inspection process
Inspection results
Measures
Fire outside of the high voltage battery mount

※Example:
Engine fire
1.

Perform visual inspections (deformation, corrosion, wire coating, odor, connector).

2.

Check for main fuse open circuit after shutting off the high voltage.

3.

Check the high voltage main relay for signs of welding.

4.

Measure the high voltage battery/chassis insulation resistance.

5.

Check other parts for failure.

6.

Check the DTC code in the BMS ECU.

High voltage battery insulation damaged
Remove the high voltage battery and repair the insulation process/coating.
High voltage battery not damaged
DTC code
If a DTC code occurs, comply with DTC diagnosis guide and repair process.
No DTC code and battery appears normal
Do not replace the high voltage battery (if the battery is damaged and must be disposed of, perform the high voltage battery disposal process).
Fire in the high voltage battery mount

※Example:
Trunk fire
7.

Perform visual inspections (deformation, corrosion, wire coating, odor, connector).

8.

Check for visible damage of the high voltage battery.

9.

Check the high voltage main relay for signs of welding after shutting off the high voltage if no visible damage is found in the high voltage battery.

10.

Measure the high voltage battery/chassis insulation resistance.

11.

Check other parts for failure.

12.

Check the DTC code in the BMS ECU.

High voltage battery appears damaged (heat, soot, etc.)
Remove the service disconnect plug and perform the salt water battery disposal process.
High voltage battery insulation damaged
Remove the high voltage battery and repair the coating/insulation.
High voltage battery not damaged
DTC code
If a DTC code occurs, perform the repair process outlined in the DTC diagnosis guide.
No DTC code and battery appears normal
Do not replace the high voltage battery (if the battery is damaged and must be disposed of, perform the high voltage battery disposal process).

3) Collision

Classification
Inspection process
Inspection results
Measures
Collision damage to areas other than the high voltage battery mount

※Example:
Front/side collision
13.

Perform visual inspections (deformation, corrosion, wire coating, odor, connector).

14.

Check for main fuse open circuit after shutting off the high voltage.

15.

Check the high voltage main relay for signs of melting.

16.

Measure the high voltage battery/chassis insulation resistance.

17.

Check other components.

18.

Check the DTC code in the BMS ECU.

High voltage battery insulation damaged
Remove the high voltage battery and repair the coating/insulation.
High voltage battery not damaged
DTC code
If a DTC code occurs, perform the repair process outlined in the DTC diagnosis guide.
No DTC code and battery appears normal
Do not replace the high voltage battery (if the battery is damaged and must be disposed of, perform the high voltage battery disposal process).
Collisions involving the high voltage battery mount

※Example:
Rear-end collision
19.

Perform visual inspections (deformation, corrosion, wire coating, odor, connector).

20.

Check for main fuse open circuit after shutting off the high voltage.

21.

Check the high voltage main relay for signs of melting.

22.

Measure the high voltage battery/chassis insulation resistance.

23.

Check other components.

24.

Check the DTC code in the BMS ECU.

High voltage battery insulation damaged
⇑ Follow the measures outlined above.
※ If the high voltage battery mount is inaccessible due to trunk or door damage, bend or cut the exterior panels without damaging the high voltage system and carry out the inspection and repair process.
High voltage battery not damaged
DTC code
No DTC code and battery appears normal






4) Submersion

Classification
Inspection process
Inspection results
Measures
High voltage battery not submerged
25.

Perform a visual inspection (deformation, corrosion, wire coating, odor, connector).

26.

Check for main fuse open circuit after shutting off the high voltage.

27.

Check the high voltage main relay for signs of melting.

28.

Measure the high voltage battery/chassis insulation resistance.

29.

Check other components.

30.

Check the DTC code in the BMS ECU.

High voltage battery insulation damaged
Remove the high voltage battery and repair the coating/insulation.
High voltage battery not damaged
DTC code
If a DTC code occurs, perform the repair process outlined in the DTC diagnosis guide.
No DTC code and battery appears normal
Do not replace the high voltage battery (if the battery is damaged and must be disposed of, perform the high voltage battery disposal process).
High voltage battery submerged
[Regardless of water conditions]
31.

Check for main fuse open circuit after shutting off the high voltage.

32.

Check the high voltage main relay for signs of melting.

33.

Measure the high voltage battery/chassis insulation resistance.

34.

Check the DTC code in the BMS ECU.

Carry out these measures regardless of the inspection results
Remove the high voltage battery and repair the coating/insulation.

Main Fuse Inspection
1.

Remove the safety plug lever (A).

2.

Remove the safety plug cover (A) and then remove the main fuse (B) by removing the mounting bolts.

3.

Measure the resistance of main fuse.

Specification: 1 Ω or less [20°C(68°F]

4.

If the measured resistance is not within the specification, replace the main fuse.

Checking for Welding in the High Voltage Main Relay

In order to safely remove the battery pack assembly, you must first inspect the high voltage main relay for signs of weld damage.

You can use Global Diagnostic System (KDS/GDS) service data to detect weld damage in the high voltage main relay.

[Using KDS/GDS service data to check for main relay weld damage]

1.

Connect the KDS/GDS to the self-diagnosis connector (DLC).

2.

Switch "ON" the ignition.

3.

Check 'BNS Weld Flag' in the KDS/GDS service data.

[Using a Multimeter to measure welding damage]

  

Be sure to read and follow the “General Safety Information and Caution” before doing any work related with the high voltage system. Failure to follow the safety instructions may result in serious electrical injuries.

Be sure to shut off the high voltage before doing any work related with the high voltage system(Refer to "High Voltage Shut-off Procedure"). Failure to follow the safety instructions may result in serious electrical injuries.

1.

Shut off the High Voltage circuit.

(Refer to Hybrid Control System - “High Voltage Shutoff Procedure”)

2.

Remove the rear seat cushion.

(Refer to Body - "Rear Seat Assembly")

3.

Remove the rear door scuff trim.

(Refer to Body - "Door Scuff Trim")

4.

Remove the inlet cooling duct.

(Refer to High Voltage Battery Cooling System - "Cooling Duct")

5.

Remove the high voltage battery rear cover.

(Refer to High Voltage Battery System - "Case")

6.

Disconnect the high voltage (-) connector (A) and high voltage (+) connector (B).

7.

Measure the high voltage main relay resistance and check for signs of weld damage.

Specification: 1 Ω or less [20°C (68°F)]

Insulation Resistance Inpection

The high voltage isolation used in hybrid systems can be checked using KDS/GDS service data or by measuring it directly.

[Using KDS/GDS service data to check Insulation Resistance]

1.

Connect the KDS/GDS to the self-diagnosis connector (DLC).

2.

Switch "ON" the ignition.

3.

Check the insulation resistance in the KDS/GDS service data.

Normal insulation resistance range: Around 1.0 MΩ

[Measuring insulation resistance using an insulation tester (MΩ tester)]

  

Be sure to read and follow the “General Safety Information and Caution” before doing any work related with the high voltage system. Failure to follow the safety instructions may result in serious electrical injuries.

Be sure to read and follow the “High Voltage Shut-off Procedures” before doing any work related with the high voltage system. Failure to follow the safety instructions may result in serious electrical injuries.

1.

Shut off the high voltage circuit.

(Refer to Hybrid Control System - "High Voltage Shut-off Procedures")

2.

Remove the rear seat cushion.

(Refer to Body - "Rear Seat Assembly")

3.

Remove the rear door scuff trim.

(Refer to Body - "Door Scuff Trim")

4.

Remove the inlet cooling duct.

(Refer to High Voltage Battery Cooling System - "Cooling Duct")

5.

Remove the high voltage battery rear cover.

(Refer to High Voltage Battery System - "Case")

6.

Connect the insulation tester (-) terminal (A) to the battery system case (or ground).

7.

Connect the insulation tester (+) terminal to the high voltage battery (+) and (-) terminals. Measure the resistance.

[Measure the insulation resistance on the power relay assembly high voltage power terminal (+)]

(1)

Connect the insulation tester (+) terminal to the (+) PRA high voltage power terminal (A).

(2)

Supply 500V through the insulation tester and wait one minute to measure the stable resistance.

(3)

Check the insulation resistance.

Normal insulation resistance range : Above 1.0 MΩ

[Measure the insulation resistance on the power relay assembly high voltage power terminal (-)]

(1)

Connect the insulation tester (+) terminal to the (-) PRA high voltage power terminal (B).

(2)

Supply 500V through the insulation tester and wait one minute to measure the stable resistance.

(3)

Check the insulation resistance.

Normal insulation resistance range: Above 1.0 MΩ

[Measure the insulation resistance on the power relay assembly inverter power terminal (+)]

  

When measuring the insulation resistance on each PRA inverter, use a contact pin to prevent damaging the connector and for more accurate measurement.

(1)

Connect the insulation tester (+) terminal to the (+) PRA inverter power terminal (A).

(2)

Supply 500V through the insulation tester and wait one minute to measure the stable resistance.

(3)

Check the insulation resistance.

Normal insulation resistance range: Above 1.0 MΩ

[Measure the insulation resistance on the power relay assembly inverter power terminal (-)]

  

When measuring the insulation resistance on each PRA inverter, use a contact pin to prevent damaging the connector and for more accurate measurement.

(1)

Connect the insulation tester (+) terminal to the (-) PRA inverter power terminal (B).

(2)

Supply 500V through the insulation tester and wait one minute to measure the stable resistance.

(3)

Check the insulation resistance.

Normal insulation resistance range: Above 1.0 MΩ

Handling Guide for Storing, Transporting, and Disposing of High Voltage Battery Systems
1. High voltage battery system handling process

2. Defective high voltage battery system handling / Inspection
Classification
Item
Measures
Undamaged Battery
Storage
Remove the service disconnect plug and safely store the battery in the same condition as a new battery
Transport
Separately transport to minimize impact and prevent contact with other parts.
Disposal
Transport the battery to the designated disposer
Damaged battery
Common
Inspection method
4.

Voltage check (using a digital multimeter)

(1)

Measure the voltage between the upper (+) terminal of service disconnect plug and the (-) terminal of [high voltage battery - PRA] connecting cable

→ Specification: About 120 V

(2)

Measure the voltage between the lower (-) terminal of service disconnect plug and the (+) terminal of [high voltage battery - PRA] connecting cable

→ Specification: About 120 V

▶ Measures: If abnormal, submerse the battery in salt water immediately to prevent fire.

5.

Temperature check (using a non-contact thermometer)

(1)

Check the temperature of battery case.

(2)

Check for temperature changes by measuring the temperature again after 30 minutes.

▶ Specification: The change should be 3°C (37.4°F) or less with the temperature below 35°C.

▶ Measures

If the temperature is higher than 35°C (95°F), place the battery in a cool, dry place and wait for the battery temperature to fall down to 35°C (95°F).

If the temperature change is more than 3°C (37.4°F) and continues to rise, submerge the battery in salt water immediately.

If the temperature continues to rise when measuring it at 30 minute intervals, submerge the battery in salt water immediately.

6.

Insulation resistance check (using a MΩ tester)

(1)

Measure the insulation resistance between the power relay terminal (+) and the battery pack cover.

(2)

Measure the insulation resistance between the power relay terminal (-) and the battery pack cover.

▶ Specification : 5 MΩ or less (at 500 V)

▶ Measures: Insulate the battery using insulating materials.

(Refer to "Insulation measures on parts with risk of short circuit")

7.

Insulation measures on parts with risk of short circuit (Visual inspection)

(1)

High voltage battery – PRA cable terminal

(2)

BMS voltage sensing connector

▶ Insulation measures

Use the insulation tape or rubber cap to prevent short circuit to the battery pack, cells, modules.

Fix the connector terminal to prevent wiring from moving.

8.

Electrolyte leakage check

Check for odors within 30 cm (11.8 inch, 0.98 ft) from the battery. (Electrolyte smells similar to chemicals or acrylic.)

▶ Measures: Submerge the battery in salt water immediately if a smell is detected.

Damaged battery
Damaged battery check results: normal
Storage
Remove the service disconnect plug and safely store the battery in the same condition as a new battery
Transport
Separately transport to minimize impact and prevent contact with other parts.
Disposal
Transport the battery to the designated disposer; discharge it by submerging it completely in salt water and carry out the disposal procedure.
Damaged battery check results: abnormal
Storage
Remove the service disconnect plug; insulate all exposed terminals; place the battery in a cool, dry place away from volatile or combustible substances; use insulating materials (insulation tape, rubber caps, etc.) or vinyl to wrap the battery; use anti-shock materials inside the box.
▶ Insulation measures: Refer to "Insulation measures on parts with risk of short circuit".
▶ Packing: Safely pack away any abnormal batteries in the same manner as new batteries.
Transport
Separately transport to minimize impact and prevent contact with other parts.
Disposal
Transport the battery to the designated disposer; discharge it by submerging it completely in salt water and carry out the disposal procedure.

Voltage Check

  

Be sure to read and follow the “General Safety Information and Caution” before doing any work related with the high voltage system. Failure to follow the safety instructions may result in serious electrical injuries.

Be sure to read and follow the “High Voltage Shut-off Procedures” before doing any work related with the high voltage system. Failure to follow the safety instructions may result in serious electrical injuries.

1.

Measure the voltage between the upper (+) terminal of service disconnect plug and the (-) terminal of [high voltage battery - PRA] connecting cable

→ Specification: About 120 V

2.

Measure the voltage between the lower (-) terminal of service disconnect plug and the (+) terminal of [high voltage battery - PRA] connecting cable

→ Specification: About 120 V

Insulation measures on parts with risk of short circuit

1.

High voltage battery – PRA cable terminal

Place an insulation tape or rubber cap around the (+), (-) terminals to prevent short circuit to the battery pack.

Secure the cable to the battery pack case with the insulation tape to prevent cables from moving.

2.

BMS voltage sensing connector

▶ Insulation measures

Place the insulation tape or rubber cap around connectors to prevent short circuit to the battery cells, modules.

Secure the wiring to the battery pack case with the insulation tape to prevent wiring from moving.

Discharging high voltage batteries
  

Be sure to read and follow the “General Safety Information and Caution” before doing any work related with the high voltage system. Failure to follow the safety instructions may result in serious electrical injuries.


High voltage batteries can cause electric shocks or other injuries. If any of the following symptoms is observed from a high voltage battery, discharge it as soon as possible by submerging it in salt water.

There are traces of fire or smoke.

The voltage of the battery is abnormally high (302 V or higher).

The temperature of the high voltage battery continues to rises abnormally.

Chemical or acrylic odor suggesting the leakage of electrolyte

[Discharging a battery by submerging it in salt water]
1.

Pour about 53 gal (200 L) of water into a plastic container (e.g., Poly Propylene) that can submerge the whole battery.

2.

Add 238 lb (107 kg) of salt into the water. Stir until the salt dissolves into the solution.

  

[Amount of salt] = 0.538 * [Amount of water that can fully submerge a battery]

3.

Use a lift jack to submerge the high voltage battery in the salt water.

4.

Leave the battery in the salt water for 12 hours before taking it out and drying it thoroughly.

  

The battery should be dried under a ventilated shade to avoid direct sunlight, snow and rain.


  

Submerge only one high voltage battery in a single salt water tank.

To discharge more than one battery, submerge one battery at a time to ensure safety.

Otherwise, unexpected accidents such as burning injuries may occur from exothermic reaction.

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